Friday, February 8, 2013

0803.1593 (Ettore Vicari et al.)

Theta dependence of SU(N) gauge theories in the presence of a
topological term

Ettore Vicari, Haralambos Panagopoulos
We review results concerning the theta dependence of 4D SU(N) gauge theories and QCD, where theta is the coefficient of the CP-violating topological term in the Lagrangian. In particular, we discuss theta dependence in the large-N limit. Most results have been obtained within the lattice formulation of the theory via numerical simulations, which allow to investigate the theta dependence of the ground-state energy and the spectrum around theta=0 by determining the moments of the topological charge distribution, and their correlations with other observables. We discuss the various methods which have been employed to determine the topological susceptibility, and higher-order terms of the theta expansion. We review results at zero and finite temperature. We show that the results support the scenario obtained by general large-N scaling arguments, and in particular the Witten-Veneziano mechanism to explain the U(1)_A problem. We also compare with results obtained by other approaches, especially in the large-N limit, where the issue has been also addressed using, for example, the AdS/CFT correspondence. We discuss issues related to theta dependence in full QCD: the neutron electric dipole moment, the dependence of the topological susceptibility on the quark masses, the U(1)_A symmetry breaking at finite temperature. We also consider the 2D CP(N) model, which is an interesting theoretical laboratory to study issues related to topology. We review analytical results in the large-N limit, and numerical results within its lattice formulation. Finally, we discuss the main features of the two-point correlation function of the topological charge density.
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